Training has become the core needs of the organization to develop specific skills in their existing and prospective employees. Providing training to develop an employee skills, techniques, methods and knowledge. There are two methods for imparting training in workers: On- the job training and Off-the job training.
Methods of Training
On the Job Training
when an employee learns the job in actual working site in real life situation it is called On the job training. Employee learns while working. Example, Take the instance of roadside mechanics. Small boys working there as helpers learn while helping the head mechanic. They do not learn the defect analysis and engine repairing skills in any classroom on engine models.
#1. Coaching : It is one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice.
#2. Mentoring : It is also one to one interaction, like coaching. It is used for managerial employees. The focus is on the development of attitude.
#3. Job rotation : It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people.
#4. Job instruction : It is a step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose and the result desired.
#5. Apprenticeship : It is a system of training a new generation of practitionaers of a skill. This method of training is in vogue int hose trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required for gaining proficiency.
#6. Understudy : A superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to a manager or director in a film industry. The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day to day problems.
Off the Job Training
These are conducted separate from the job environment and study material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing and there is freedom of expression.
#1. Classroom Lectures : It involves the trainer communicating through spoken words what trainer wants the trainees to learn. The communication of learned capabilities is primarily one – way from the trainer to the audience.
#2. Audio – Visual Techniques: It includes overheads, slides and video. It has been used for improving communication skills, interviewing skills and customer service skills.
#3. Simulation : It represents a real – life situation. Trainees’ decisions result in outcomes that mirror what would happen if on the job. Trainee will be trained on the especially designed equipment or machine seems to be really used in the field or job.
#4. Vestibule Training : It is one of the methods of training, where the technical staff, especially those who deal with the tools and machinery are given the job education training in the workplace other than the main production plant. Example, bank tellers, inspectors, machine operators, typists etc.
#5. Case Studies : Description about how employees or an organization deal with a difficult situation. Major assumption is that employees are most likely to recall and use knowledge and skill learned through a process of discovery.
#6. Role Playing : Trainees act out characters assigned to them. Information regarding the situation is provide to the trainees and focus on interpersonal responses.
#7. Programmed Instructions
this involves two essential elements :
- A step by step series of bit knowledge, each building upon what has gone before
- A mechanism for presenting the series and checking on the trainee’s knowledge.
This programme may be carried out with a book, a manual or teaching machine. It is primarily used for teaching factual knowledge such as mathematics, physics, etc.
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